A Parent's Guide: Caring for Children Under School Age

By AgeIn Tiimi

10 min. read


Raising children is one of life's greatest joys and challenges. Especially caring for children under school age requires a lot of attention, love, and patience. At this stage of a child's life, when they are just learning basic skills and exploring the world, the role of parents is invaluable. The purpose of this guide is to provide comprehensive advice and tips for parents to navigate challenging yet rewarding issues related to the care of children under school age.

As a parent, you are your child's first teacher, safety net, and support pillar. Your responsibility is not only to ensure your child's physical well-being but also to promote their mental, emotional, and social development. In this guide, we address these different aspects and offer practical guidelines on how you can support your child's growth and development in the best possible way.

We particularly focus on how to create a safe, loving, and encouraging environment that fosters your child's natural abilities and interests. Additionally, we examine how daily routines, play, and learning can be enjoyable and beneficial for both you and your child.

Join us on a journey where we learn together how to be the best possible parents to our small, curious, and wonderful children.

Developmental Stages and Children's Needs

Every child is unique, and their stages of growth and development are diverse. Children under school age, typically 0-6 years old, undergo several rapid changes that impact their physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development. Understanding these developmental stages can better equip you to support your child's growth.

Physical Development

Physical development includes the progression of motor skills, such as learning to walk, drawing, and handling small objects. It is important at this age to encourage children to participate in various physical activities that aid in the development of their motor skills.

Cognitive Development

Preschoolers are curious, and their ability to understand the world develops rapidly. This is the time when they learn languages, solve problems, and begin to comprehend their surroundings. You can support their cognitive development by providing various learning opportunities through play, storytelling, and exploratory activities.

Emotional and Social Development

This stage involves recognizing, expressing, and managing emotions. Social development, on the other hand, pertains to how children learn to interact with others, form friendships, and work in groups. As a parent, you can support this development by encouraging your children to express their emotions in a healthy manner and guiding them in social situations.

Language and Communication Development

Learning language is a crucial part of the development of children under school age. They learn to communicate, express their thoughts, and understand others' communication. You can support your child's language development by talking and reading to them, as well as encouraging them to express themselves.

Tips for Parents:

Observe and recognize your child's unique developmental stages and needs.
Create an environment that supports different developmental stages: a safe physical space, an encouraging atmosphere for learning and play, and opportunities for social interaction.

Be patient and understanding. Every child develops at their own pace.
By understanding these developmental stages and children's needs, you can lay a solid foundation for your child's future growth and development. In the following sections, we will focus more closely on how you can implement this practically at home.

Safety and Healthcare

As a parent, one of your primary concerns is the safety and health of your child. It is essential to create a safe environment where your child can grow and develop without problems. In this section, we will address some key aspects to help you ensure the safety and health of your child.

Home Safety

Safe Environment: Ensure that your home is safe by removing sharp objects, toxic substances, and other dangerous materials from the child's reach.

Safety Equipment: Install safety gates on stairs, lock windows and cabinets, and protect electrical outlets with childproof covers.

Supervision: Always keep an eye on young children, especially near water pools and bathtubs.

Health and Well-being

Nutrition: Provide a varied and healthy diet that supports your child's growth and development.

Sleep: Ensure that your child has regular bedtime routines and an adequate amount of sleep.

Physical Activity: Encourage your child to engage in active play and exercise, promoting their physical health and development.

Doctor Visits

Regular Check-ups: Ensure that your child receives all necessary vaccinations and health check-ups.

Emergencies: Know when and how to act if your child becomes ill or injured. Always keep emergency numbers handy and be aware of the nearest hospital location.

Tips for Parents:

Evaluate home safety from a child's perspective. Check all potential sources of danger.
Establish healthy eating habits and routines that support your child's overall well-being.

Stay informed about your child's health and development. Don't hesitate to seek advice or help from healthcare professionals.

Ensuring your child's safety and health is a crucial step in guaranteeing their well-being. In the next section, we will explore how you can support your child's emotional and social development.

Emotional and Social Development

Children begin developing emotional and social skills from an early age. This development is crucial for their ability to understand themselves and others. In this section, we will discuss how you can support your child's emotional and social development.

Recognition and Handling of Emotions

Expression of Emotions: Encourage your child to recognize and express their emotions. Be an example by showing how to handle your own emotions in a healthy way.

Understanding Emotions: Teach your child that all emotions are valid, but not all actions are. Help them understand how emotions impact their behavior.

Social Skills

Interaction Skills: Encourage your child to play with other children and participate in group activities. This helps them learn turn-taking, sharing, and cooperation.

Developing Empathy: Learn together with your child to recognize and understand the feelings and perspectives of others.

Role Play and Social Learning

Playtime: Role-playing is an excellent way for children to learn social skills. It provides an opportunity to practice different social situations in a safe environment.
Power of Example: Children learn a lot by observing their parents and other adults. Be a positive role model in your behavior and interaction with others.

Tips for Parents:

Talk to your child daily and ask how they felt in different situations.
Create a safe and accepting atmosphere at home where your child can freely express their feelings and thoughts.

Actively participate in your child's social life by providing opportunities to meet other children and engage in group activities.

The support and guidance you provide to your child in these early stages lay the foundation for their ability to handle emotions and interact with others later in life. Next, we will delve into how you can support your child's learning and creativity at home.

Learning and Creativity

The world of preschool-age children is full of curiosity and creativity. At this age, learning often occurs through play and exploration. As a parent, you can support your child's creative development and learning in many ways.

Learning at Home

Play is Learning: Remember that play is a crucial form of learning for children. Through play, they acquire new skills such as problem-solving and social skills.
Exploratory Play: Encourage your child to explore and experiment. This can involve cooking together in the kitchen, outdoor adventures in nature, or simple science experiments at home.

Fostering Creativity

Artistic Expression: Provide opportunities for your child to express themselves through art. Drawing, painting, singing, and dancing are all excellent ways to nurture creativity.

Stories and Books: Read to your child regularly. Reading not only develops language skills but also fuels their imagination.

Routines and Learning

Daily Routines: Establish daily routines that include elements of learning and creativity. For example, reading a book in the mornings and drawing or painting in the evenings.

Questions and Discussions: Use everyday situations as learning opportunities. Ask questions and engage in conversations with your child about the surrounding world.

Tips for Parents:

Avoid overly high expectations. Let your child learn and develop at their own pace.
Provide diverse materials and experiences that fuel your child's curiosity and creativity.

Be present and actively participate in your child's learning process. Learning together is both fun and educational.

By supporting your child's creativity and learning, you help them develop essential skills that will be beneficial throughout their lives. Next, we will delve into how you can create and maintain effective routines and set healthy boundaries.

Routines and Setting Boundaries

Routines and setting boundaries are crucial aspects of parenting. They help create a sense of security, teach self-control, and aid in understanding expectations and consequences.

Daily Routines

Morning and Evening Routines: Established morning and evening routines help children feel secure and calm. These may include activities such as breakfast, teeth brushing, storytime, and bedtime rituals.

Meal and Playtime Routines: Regular meal times and planned play moments let the child know what to expect and help manage the flow of the day.

Setting Boundaries

Clear Rules and Expectations: Set clear rules and expectations at home. Explain to the child why rules exist and what happens if they are not followed.

Consistency: Stick to the boundaries and rules you set. Consistency helps the child understand that boundaries are set for their well-being.

Positive Discipline Methods

Rewards and Encouragement: Focus on positive methods, such as praise and encouragement, when the child follows rules and behaves well.

Constructive Conversation: If the child breaks rules, use the opportunity as a teaching moment. Discuss with the child what went wrong and how they can behave differently in the future.

Tips for Parents:

Create routines that fit your family's lifestyle and your child's needs.
Be consistent but flexible. Sometimes it's necessary to adjust routines or rules to new situations.

Use setting boundaries as an educational tool that helps the child learn self-control and responsibility.

With routines and boundaries, you can create a balanced and functional daily life for your child. Next, we will discuss how you can take care of your own well-being and, at the same time, support your child's growth.

Parental Support and Well-being

Parenting is rewarding, but it can also be challenging. Your well-being directly affects your ability to care for your child. In this section, we will discuss how you can take care of your own well-being while supporting your child's growth.


Rest and Relaxation: Ensure you get enough rest. Take time to relax and engage in activities that help recharge your batteries.

Healthy Lifestyle: Eat healthily, exercise regularly, and take care of your overall health. A healthy parent is better equipped to face the challenges of parenting.

Seeking Support

Family and Friends: Don't hesitate to ask for help from your family and friends. Share childcare responsibilities to give yourself some time.

Parenting Groups and Counseling Services: Join parenting support groups or seek counseling services. Sharing experiences with other parents can be very comforting and beneficial.

Maintaining Balance

Time Management: Organize your time efficiently. Prioritize tasks and create schedules to help manage the challenges of daily life.
Child-Free Moments: Reserve time for yourself without the children. This can be as simple as enjoying a peaceful cup of coffee or participating in a hobby.

Tips for Parents:

Don't hesitate to ask for help when you need it. Parenthood is not a solitary journey.
Remember that you are a good parent even if you are not perfect. Everyone makes mistakes, and it's part of the learning process.

Take care of your mental well-being. If you feel overwhelmed or exhausted, seek professional help.

Maintaining your well-being helps you be the best possible parent for your child. Next, we will address frequently asked questions to help you better understand the care of preschool-age children.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

As a parent, you may encounter many questions and uncertainties. In this section, we address some of the most common questions that parents have about caring for children under school age.

Q1: How can I ensure that my child gets enough sleep?
Answer: Depending on the child's age, they need different amounts of sleep. It is recommended that children under school age sleep for 10-14 hours per day. A calm bedtime routine, regular sleep schedules, and a peaceful sleeping environment help ensure an adequate amount of sleep.

Q2: How can I support my child's language development?
Answer: Talk to your child regularly, read books together, and encourage your child to express themselves. Games such as rhymes and songs are also good ways to support language development.

Q3: What is the best way to set boundaries and rules?
Answer: Be consistent in setting boundaries and explain their purpose to your child in an understandable way. Use positive reinforcement and be patient. Remember that the purpose of boundaries is to teach the child safety and self-control.

Q4: How can I help my child develop social skills?
Answer: Encourage your child to play with other children, participate in group activities, and share their toys. Role-playing and group games are also good ways to practice interaction skills.

Q5: How can I ensure that I am a good parent?
Answer: Good parenting does not mean perfection. Be present in your child's life, listen to them, show love and care, and be willing to learn and grow as a parent. Also, take care of your own well-being.

Q6: How can I deal with the behavior of a toddler?
Answer: Tantrums and defiant behavior are normal up to a certain age. It's important to stay calm, be consistent, and set clear boundaries. Understand that challenging behavior is part of the child's developing independence.

These are just a few common questions that parents may face. Every child and family situation is unique, so be prepared to adapt and learn along the way.

In Conclusion

Parenthood is a unique and evolving journey that includes both challenges and moments of joy. In this guide, we have covered several key topics related to caring for children under school age, including developmental stages, safety, health, emotional and social development, learning, creativity, routines, setting boundaries, and parental support and well-being.

Summary and Encouraging Words

Remember that each child is unique, and their growth path may vary. Be patient and, in addition to providing your child with love and support, give them space to grow and learn at their own pace. As a parent, you don't have to be perfect; the most important thing is to be present, loving, and supportive.

Parenthood is a learning process for you as well. Be open to new ideas, be willing to change your ways, and be kind to yourself. Remember that help is available – don't hesitate to seek support when you need it.

Final Words

We hope this guide has provided you with valuable tools and information to assist you on your parenting journey. Share your experiences and tips with other parents, and remember that together, we can support and learn from each other.

Parenthood is an incredible journey full of opportunities for growth and learning, both for you and your child. We wish you happiness and joy on this journey!

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